Impact of climate change on human health

Impact of climate change on human health

In recent decades, climate change on the planet has become apparent. The life of all the inhabitants of the Earth directly depends on the state of the climate. Scientists involved in the study of climate have found the dependence of the influence of human activities on changing weather conditions, and, as a result, global warming. Economic calculations show that if the growth rate of modern energy based on the combustion of fossil fuels continues in the future, the Earth’s climate will change towards warming. Therefore, the problem of climate warming on our planet is extremely relevant.

It is well known that the average annual air temperature is steadily rising upwards. Its increase is estimated at 0.7. °C for 100 years. Warming is accompanied by some negative phenomena: more frequent floods, hurricanes, desertification problems. These problems harm both nature and man. Therefore, it is important to know how the climate will change in the future, what negative consequences may await us in the future. Until now, scientists cannot say with 100% certainty what causes climate change. Many theories and assumptions have been put forward as the causes of global warming.

Positive aspects of global warming

  • Perhaps cold regions (Siberia, the Arctic, Antarctica) will become more vegetative.
  • There will be no second Ice Age.
  • Less energy is required for space heating.
  • There will be fewer deaths from frostbite.
  • The growing season of the plants will be extended, which will increase the yield.

Negative aspects of global warming

  • The area of ​​deserts will increase, the rivers will dry up and millions of people will be doomed.
  • The circulation of the waters of the World Ocean will be disrupted, which will lead to irreversible consequences for the climate.
  • Chronic diseases in humans will worsen, animals will die.
  • Storms and other natural disasters will occur more frequently.
  • If less energy is spent on heating, then more energy will be spent on cooling.

Climate change, along with other natural and anthropogenic factors, has a variety of impacts on human health and disease. Some existing health threats will increase and new threats will emerge. Not all people are equally at risk. Important factors include age, economic resources and location. Public health can be affected by the destruction of physical, biological and ecological systems. The health impacts of climate change include an increase in respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, injury and premature death due to extreme weather events, changes in the prevalence and geographic distribution of food and waterborne diseases, infectious diseases, and mental health threats.

The combination of more solar activity with an increase in the proportion of ultraviolet reaching the Earth’s surface (due to the influence of greenhouse gases and the depletion of the ozone layer) may also lead to an increase in the incidence of skin cancer. If measures are not taken to control emissions of harmful substances into the environment, then the level of atmospheric pollution by 2100 will increase 4 times. This will transform skin cancer from a relatively uncommon disease resulting from our own bad habits into a major public health problem.

Exceeding the norm of precipitation indicates an increase in the risk of floods. Floods are hazardous to human health for many reasons. For example, floods can increase the population of viruses and bacteria living in the aquatic environment. Water can wash down gutters and other sources of pathogens and contaminate drinking water supplies. It can wash fertilizers out of the ground, which again fall into drinking water. Fertilizers and sewage, together falling into warm water, give a rapid bloom of algae. The smells of some of them are toxic to humans, while other algae poison fish and shellfish. By consuming such fish, you can acquire various diseases. In addition, flowering algae are carriers of Vibrio cholerae, the microorganism that causes cholera. Flooding also increases the risk of contracting dengue fever and infections,

Diseases associated with climate change

Because of the elevated air temperature, the lungs of people with COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) begin to function less. The high temperature in the room also affects this. Air pollution is the main external risk factor for disease. According to the All-Russian Scientific Society of Pulmonologists, there are about a million people in Russia with COPD.

Climate change is causing the air to warm up, making it dry. This is due to the large number of forest fires, which, in turn, is the cause of some diseases. The entry of microscopic smoke particles into apartments provokes coughing, the development of asthma and heart attacks. Such side effects are extremely dangerous for people with heart and lung diseases.

Natural fires in Russia in 2010 led to an environmental emergency, namely smog and a 36% increase in mortality. 10% of peat fires are due to spontaneous combustion of peat, in other cases the “human factor” is to blame – cigarette butts, matches, unextinguished cigarettes that are thrown out of cars.

3-6% of new cases of bronchial asthma appear due to exposure to polluted air. All this entails premature aging and the development of asthma in children and adolescents.

Recommendations for reducing the risks of climate change impact

  • Training the body by hardening, in particular a contrast shower.
  • Ensuring a nutritious diet.
  • More to be outdoors.
  • To refuse from bad habits.
  • Start the day with a charge, but with high blood pressure and chronic diseases on days of a sharp change in weather, it is better to refrain from physical and mental stress.
  • Follow the weather forecast.
  • Get regular check-ups.

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